FORT ALDEN: was at Cherry Valley.
FORT AMHERST: was on the south bank of the Half-way Brook and a few rods east of the old military road. Local tradition has it that the block house on the opposite side of the brook, was then rebuilt, enlarged and strengthened. Fort Amherst used as a fortified camp in 1757-58. The fort was erected in 1759. It was occupied by the forces of Baron Riedesel in the Burgoyne Campaign of 1777 It was burned in 1780 in the Carleton Raid at the time of the Northern Invasion.
FORT AMSTERDAM: The fort was built of Holland brick, and was finished in 1635. It stood on high ground, southeast of the Bowling Green, and was capacious enough to contain the governor’s house, a small church, and to accommodate three hundred soldiers. On its surrender to the English, it was called Fort James; during the Dutch occupation again, in 1673, it was called Fort William Hendrick; then again Fort James; on the accession of William and Mary, it was called Fort Orange; and finally it was named Fort George, when Anne, who married Prince George of Denmark, ascended the English throne. It retained that time until it was demolished in 1790-91.
FORT ANN: erected by Gen. Nicholson in 1757, two years after the construction of Fort Edward.
FORT BLUNDER: name for a time of Fort Montgomery, one mile north of Rouse’s Point.
FORT BREWERTON: built in 1756 at the west end of Oneida Lake.
FORT BULL: at Wood Creek.
BURNET’S FORT: A small fort built by Gov. Burnet at Oswego in 1727. From that time until 1755, the English had undisturbed possession of Burnet’s Fort, and kept it garrisoned by a Lieutenant and twenty-five men.
FORT CANAJOHARIE: on the south bank of the Mohawk River nearly opposite the mouth of East Canada Creek. French and Indian War post, 1756-1760. Was built to protect the river ford at this point.
FORT CARILLON: the first fort built on the promontory which so perfectly commands the southern extremity of Lake Champlain, was erected by the French in 1151 to prevent the English from entering Canada.
FORT CHAMBLY: at the foot of the Falls of Chambly, in the present valley of Chambly, by Capt. De Chambly of Carignan-Salieries Regiment in 1644. A French fort built as a base for their expeditions against the Iroquois.
FORT CLINTON: was Fort Saratoga, as it was rebuilt a year after the Saratoga Massacre of Nov. 16, 1745. Was abandoned in the fall of 1747.
FORT CLINTON: on the lower plateau at West Point.
FORT CLINTON: situated on the west bank of the Hudson nearly opposite Anthony’s Nose and south of Fort Montgomery.
FORT CLYDE: It was a military post situated on the farm of Henry H. Nellis, still owned by his descendants, in Freysbush. It was on elevated ground, affording a fine prospect, and was about three miles southeast of Fort Plain, as the road then ran. It was not unlike the original plan of Fort Plain, being a palisaded enclosure with block-house corners. It has one or two cannon, and is believed to have been built about 1777.
COCK HILL FORT: on the east bank of the Hudson at the mouth of the Harlem River.
FORT CONSTITUTION: built in the fall of 1775 on Constitution Island.
FORT CROWN POINT: originally an English trading station but about 1731, the French erected a fort, called Fort St. Frederic. The French held this fort until 1759, when the garrison, with that of Fort Ticonderoga, retreated down the lake. The English rebuilt the fort in 1759-60. In 1773 the barracks took fire and the magazine exploded, partially demolishing the fortifications.
FORT CRAVEN: one of the forts on the Wood Creek portage.
FORT DAYTON: built in 1776, by Col. Elias Dayton and named in his honor. It was in the present village of Herkimer.
FORT DUBOISE: a block-house similar to the one called Fort Plain, was erected that spring, 17??, near the dwelling of Jacob Shafer in Cobleskill, about a half mile east of Cobleskill village. This block-house was erected by Capt. Duboise of Catskill, and called Fort Duboise. It was surrounded by a deep moat, which was partially filled with water from a brook running near.
FORT EDWARD: the first fortification to be established on the present site of the village of Fort Edward, at the Hudson River east of the Great Carrying Place was Fort Nicholson. It was built by Col. Peter Schuyler, the commander of the vanguard of Nicholson’s Expedition against Crown Point in 1709. Upon the retreat of Nicholson’s Army from Lake Champlain, it was abandoned.
FORT FREY: palisaded and garrisoned by British troops during Queen Anne’s War, 1701-1713. Present Fort Frey was erected in 1739 and was a British army post during the early part of the French and Indian War of 1754-60.
FORT GAGE: located about a mile south of Fort William Henry.
FORT GERMANTOWN: built on Hansclever Patent in Herkimer county, perhaps the same as Fort New Petersburg. The farthest white settlement in 1764.
FORT GEORGE: erected at the bead of Lake George by Gen. Amherst in 1759 as a base for his advance against Fort Ticonderoga. Was captured May 12, 1775 by Gen. Bernard Romans, who had originally enrolled as a member of Ethan Allen’s expedition against Fort Ticonderoga. He left Allen’s party at Pittsfield, Mass. and proceeded alone to Fort Edward where he enlisted sixteen men and went on to Fort George. Fort George, at this time was occupied by only a caretaker, whose chief duty was to assist in forwarding of express to and from Canada. The fort contained some stores, however, which Romans took possession of for the Continental Army. The fort was situated about a mile southeast from Fort William Henry, on a gently sloping bank from the lake.
FORT GEORGE: built about 1773 in the city of New York and the Bowling Green.
FORT GEORGE: upon the high west bank of the Harlem River, yet rough and wooded, were two breast-works. These the British afterward strengthened and called it Fort George. This was between 192nd. and 196th. streets.
FORT HARDY: was built in Aug. 1755, by Gen. Phinehas Lyman, at the mouth of Fish Creek, on the Hudson, now Schuylerville. It was named for Sir Chutes Hardy, Governor of New York and was intended primarily for a safety post for Johnson’s Expedition which was then advancing against Crown Point.
FORT HARRISON: (1736) Is found on the 1779 Tryon map just west of Palatine Church. It was probably on the Harrison patent.
HARTMAN’S DORF: a block-house was erected in 1781.
FORT HERKIMER: or Herkimer’s. On the south bank of the Mohawk and a few rods east of the stone church. See Fort Kouari.
FORT HENDRICK: was built at Indian Castle.
FORT HESS: was near Nelliston in the present town of St. Johnsville.
FORT HILL: (St. Johnsville) An old Indian fort palisaded during the French and Indian War. Crum Creek flows past the west end of the hill.
FORT HOUSE: was a fortified dwelling on the north side of West street in St. Johnsville.
FORT HUNTER: Here at the mouth of the Schoharie Creek, Gov. Hunter built the first fort west of Schenectady in 1711. It was the western frontier post until 1722, when Fort Oswego was built.
FORT INDEPENDENCE: built on the east bank of the Hudson north of Peekskill.
FORT INDEPENDENCE: on the east bank of the Hudson and just north of the Harlem River overlooking King’s Bridge.
FORT INGOLDSBY: was built during Queen Anne’s War in 1709 near the present village of Stillwater, on the Hudson, by Col Peter Schuyler. It was named in honor of the Lieut. Gov. of the Province, and was intended as a supply post in Nicholson’s Expedition against the French in Canada.
FORT JOHNSON: the jail was palisaded, and, with several blockhouses built within the enclosure, it constituted the Johnstown fort-1780.
FORT KEYSER: was located about a mile south of Fort Paris at Stone Arabia, on the farm of Aurora Failing. It was a small stone dwelling, which had been stockaded and named after the family who formerly owned the place.
FORT KLOCK: built in 1750 by Johannes Klock, it was palisaded during the Revolution and formed a neighborhood defense and refuge in times of danger.
KNEISKERN’S DORF: Early in the year of 1781, a blockhouse was erected at Kneiskern’s dorf on lands of Mr. Houck, near the present residence of George Taylor and picketed in.
FORT KOUARI: was built about a half-mile east of Fort Herkimer church. This fort was intended to serve as a storehouse for Fort Oswego which however, was captured by the French in 1756 . This fort was later called Fort Herkimer.
FORT La PRAIRIE: marked the site of a French settlement on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River, above the mouth of the Richelieu. An expedition against it was conducted by Capt. John Schuyler in August 1690, following the abandonment of Winthrop’s expedition, as a retaliation for the massacre of Schenectady. The inhabitants were surprised as they were at work in the fields, but retreated to the fort with the loss of six killed and nineteen taken prisoners. One hundred fifty head of oxen were slaughtered and all the houses and barns outside the fort were burned. The following year, 1691 Schuyler’s brother, Maj. Phillip Schuyler, surprised the fort again, captured it, killed many of its defenders, and withdrew to Albany.
FORT LA PRESENTATION: built by the French in 1749. Sometimes referred to as Fort Oswegatchie, present Ogdensburgh.
FORT LEE: was on the west bank of the Hudson opposite Fort Washington.
LOWER FORT: at Schoharie, site of present church.
LEWISTON FORT: was built in 1719 near Niagara.
FORT LEWIS: (Currytown) Palisaded house of Henry Lewis, successfully defended when village was raided and burned by Doxstader in 1781.
FORT LYDIUS: built at the Great Carrying Place-destroyed in 1745.
FORT LYMAN: was built at the beginning of the Great Carrying Place in July 1755, by Gen. Phinehas Lyman, who commanded a body of provincial troops and Indians, forming part of Johnson’s Army for the attack upon Fort St. Frederick. Johnson later changed the name to Fort Edward.
MAALWYCK: (Scotia) Karel Hansen Tell place, land extending from Hoffmans for seven miles on north side (1712). In July 1748, an Indian massacre took place here. Place is now known as Beukendall.
MIDDLE FORT: (Schoharie) erected the latter part of 1777, at Middleburg.
FORT MILLER: was built during Queen Anne’s War, in 1709, at the rapids in the Hudson between Schuylerville and Fort Edward, by Col. Peter Schuyler, who commanded the vanguard of Nicholson’s Expedition. It was designed to defend the landing at that point, and was thus an important link in the chain established to relay supplies for the expedition.
FORT MONTGOMERY: on the west bank of Hudson river, south of west Point.
FORT MONTGOMERY: situated on the west bank of the Hudson nearly opposite Anthonys Nose.
FORT NEILSON: near the Saratoga Battlefield.
FORT NIAGARA: La Salle, commenced construction of a crude fort in Jan. 1679. This fort was later destroyed by fire and in 1687 a second fort was built at the site by Denonville, royal governor of Canada. This was later abandoned. The present “Old Fort Niagara” was begun in 1726.
FORT FREDERICK, FORT ORANGE and FORT NASSAU: All names of the fort at Albany.
FORT NASSAU: was the first fort built on the present site of Albany, It was erected by Hendrick Christensen in 1614, on Castle Island, near the end of the Old Indian Carrying Place to the Mohawk at Schenectady. Castle Island was on the east side of the river below Rensselaer and was for a long time known as Patroon’s Island. It has since been joined to the main land and has entirely lost its identity.
FORT NEWPORT: (Rome) Built in 1758 as a defense of the Wood Creek portage.
ONEIDA CASTLE and FORT: Built in 1762. Indian name was Ca-no-wa-rogh.
FORT PARIS: was built in the fall, winter and spring of 1776-77, one half mile north of the Stone Arabia churches, by order of the America, Revolutionary Army, and was named in honor of Isaac Paris, a leading local merchant and patriot, who was captured at the battle of Oriskany and murdered by the Indians. The fort Was of solid timber, two stories high, with the upper story projection beyond the first on all sides. It was never surrendered to the enemy, and remained standing until the early part of the nineteenth century, when it was taken down and removed.
FORT PLAIN: was built on the present Fort Hill in 1776, by Col. Dayton. It was a quandrangle of earth and log embrasures, with block-houses, mounting cannon, at opposite corners and a strong block-house in the center.
FORT PLANK: was situated on elevated ground, nearly our miles southwest of Fort Plain, and consisted of a small palisaded enclosure embracing a dwelling, which has for years been known as the Chauncey House Place, and is now owned by Ruben Failing, and occupied by his son Joseph. When fortified it was owned by a family named Plank, on which account it was thus named.
POINT au FER:
FORT PUTNAM: built by Kosciuszko in the spring of 1778. It was in the western environs of West Point.
RHEIMENSCHNEIDER FORT: (Reme Snyder’s Bush-Manheim) was a fortified dwelling northeast of Little Falls.
FORT RENSSELAER: name given to the fort erected at Fort Plain.
FORT RICHELIEU: was the first fort built by the French to protect their settlements on the St. Lawrence from the expeditions of the Iroquois down Lake Champlain. It was erected at the mouth of the Richelieu River in 1641, by De Montagny, who succeeded Champlain as governor of New France, and was named after Cardinal Richelieu, then at the height of his power in France. It was later abandoned, but in 1664, was again rebuilt by the order of the Marquis de Tracey.
FORT RICKEY: A French and Indian War outpost west of Fort Bull.
FORT ROYAL: (Royal Block House) at the east end of Oneida Lake.
SACANDAGA BLOCK-HOUSE, was at Mayfield. It was burned Nov. 1 10, 1779.
FORT SANASCRAGA: was built on Chittenango Creek by Sir Win. Johnson. It was here Sir John Johnson left his boats to devastate the valley and returned to them after the battle of Klock’s field.
FORT SARATOGA: was built in 1709 on the Hudson, nearly opposite the mouth of Fish Creek, by Col. Peter Schuyler, who commanded the vanguard of Nicholson’s Expedition , on the spot where he had built a block house in 1690, about which since that date, a little settlement had grown up. It was planned as one of the chain of supply posts in Nicholson’s Expedition against the French.
SCHEIL FORT: was a fortified dwelling five miles north of Herkimer. Successfully defended in Aug. 1780, against the Indians and Tories.
FORT SCHLOSSER: (Niagara) was built in 1750 at the end of the portage above the falls.
FORT SCHUYLER: Built in 1758, (now Utica) by British Colonial army engineers, one of a chain of defenses which extended along the Albany-Oswego water route during the French and Indian War, 1754-1760.
FORT STANWIX: was erected in 1758 by Gen. John Stanwix. It had four bastions surrounded by a broad ditch, eighteen feet deep, with a covert way and glacis. In the center of the ditch was a row of perpendicular pickets and a horizontal row from the ramparts. In May 1781, Fort Stanwix, being almost ruined, was burned and evacuated.
FORT ST. ANNE: the fourth in a chain of French forts in the Champlain Valley, was built by Capt. de LaMothe on Isle LaMotte in 1665. It was the last outpost from which the French made their raids into the territory of the Iroquois and from which their expeditions for the massacres of Schenectady and Saratoga set out.
FORT ST. FREDERIC: The same year in which the French settled at Chimney Point, (1731) they built a strong fort upon the opposite shore, and called it Fort St. Frederic, in honor of Frederic Maurepas, the then Secretary of State. It was a starwork, in the form of a pentagon, with bastions at the angles, and sun rounded by a ditch walled in with stone. This fort was later called Crown Point.
FORT ST. JOHN: on the Richelieu River was occupied as a British post during the Revolutionary Period. It was besieged by Montgomery in his advance on Montreal in 1755, and surrendered to him on Nov. 3rd.
FORT STONY POINT: its location was such that it seemed almost impregnable. Situated upon a huge rocky bluff, an island at high water, and always inaccessible dry-shod, except across a narrow causeway in the rear, it was strongly defended by outworks and a double row of abatis. Upon three sides of the rock were the waters of the Hudson, and on the fourth was a morass, deep and dangerous.
FORT ST. THERESA: was the third in the chain of forts in the Richelieu River Valley, erected in 1664 by order of Marquis deTracy, Viceroy of Canada, to offset the Iroquois. It was located nine miles south of the village of Chambly.
FORT TICONDEROGA: The French who first built a fort at Crown Point (Fort St. Frederic), established themselves upon this peninsula in 1755, and the next year they began the erection of a strong fortress, which they called Fort Carillon. The Indian name was generally applied to it, and by that only was it known from the close of the French and Indian war in 1763. Here in 1757, Montcalm assembled a force of 9000 men with which he captured Fort William Henry. In July the following year the English Gen. Abercrombie, unsuccessfully stormed Fort Carillon with 15,000 men, of whom 2000 were killed including Lord Howe. In 1759, Gen Amherst, invested the Fort with 12,000 men. The French, under Gen. Bourlamarque dismantled and abandoned both this Fort and Fort St. Frederick, and retired permanently to Canada. The fort was blown up by the French in their retreat, but only one bastion was wrecked and the rest of the fort was little hurt. Captured by Ethan Allen in May 1755. Upon Burgoyne’s advance, Gen. St. Clair retreated without resistance. (1777).
FORT TRYON: on the east bank of the Hudson between Fort Washington and Cock Hill Fort.
UPPER FORT: (Schoharie) was at Fultonham, built in the latter part of 1777.
FORT WAGNER: during the Revolution its owner Col. Peter Wagner erected a palisade around the house. Located about two miles west of Nelliston.
WEST POINT: On the 6th. of Oct. 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the Provincial Assembly of New York to erect such fortifications as they should deem best. They employed Bernard Romans, an English engineer (who at that time, held the same office in the British army), to construct the works; and Martelaer’s Rock (now Constitution Island), opposite West Point was the chosen spot for the principal fortification. The fort was named Constitution, and the island has since borne that title. In the meanwhile, several officers examined various localities in the neighborhood, and all were in favor of erecting a strong fort on West Point. The principal redoubt, constructed chiefly of logs and earth, was completed before May, 1778, and named Fort Clinton. It was six hundred yards around within the walls The embankments were twenty-one feet at the base, and fourteen feet high. Within were barracks and huts for about six hundred men.
FORT WILLETT: was built in 1780, about four miles west of Fort Plain as a neighborhood refuge.
FORT WINDECKER: (Mindenville) was built in 1777 on the south side of the Mohawk as a neighborhood refuge.
FORT WILLIAM: This was a block house erected near the mouth of Otter Creek, witnessed part of the bitter strife between the settlers under the New Hampshire grants and those from New York .
FORT WILLIAM HENRY: Built at the head of Lake George by Gen. William Johnson in 1755, was named in honor of William Duke of Gloucester, grandson of George II and brother of George III.
FORT WINSLOW: was built in 1756 at Stillwater-on-the-Hudson, on the site of Fort Ingoldsby. It was named after Gen. John Wins low, who succeeded Gen. Johnson in command of Fort William Henry in 1756. Fort Winslow was designed as a supply station on the road northward from Albany.